women at work - novos riscos e tendências da segurança e da saúde das mulheres no trabalho

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Novos riscos e tendências da segurança e da saúde das mulheres no trabalho

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Microsoft Word - 161213 Women at Work_formatted_EScomments (2).docx

New risks and trends in the safety and health of women at work European Risk Observatory Literature review

European Agency for Safety and Health at Work

Safety and health at work is everyones concern. Its good for you. Its good for business.

ISSN: 1831-9343

New risks and trends in the safety and health of women at work

European Agency for Safety and Health at Work EU-OSHA 2

Contributors

A report prepared for the European Agency for Safety and Health at Work by the Topic Centre Occupational Safety and Health (task leader Roxane Gervais, HSL, United Kingdom).

Project management: Elke Schneider, European Agency for Safety and Health at Work (EU-OSHA)

With contributions from:

Eva Flaspler, Angelika Hauke, Dorothea Koppisch, Dietmar Reinert, (IFA), Institut fr Arbeitsschutz der Deutschen Gesetzlichen Unfallversicherung, Germany

Theoni Koukoulaki, (ELINYAE), Hellenic Institute for Occupational Health and Safety, Greece.

Gediminas Vilkevicius, (LZUU), Lietuvos ems kio Universitetas, Lithuania Mnica guila Martnez-Casariego, Myriam Baquero Martnez, Luis Gonzlez Lozar, Sofa Vega Martnez, Sara Lpez Riera, (INSHT), Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Spain

Louise Carter, Christine Leah, Roxane Gervais, (HSL), Health and Safety Laboratory, United Kingdom

Juliet Hassard, (I-WHO), Institute of Work, Health & Organisations, United Kingdom.

Cross-checker: Simon Kaluza, (BAuA), Federal Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Germany

More information on the European Union is available on the Internet (http://europa.eu).

Cataloguing data can be found on the cover of this publication.

Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union, 2013

ISBN: 978-92-9240-153-5

doi: 10.2802/69206

European Agency for Safety and Health at Work, 2013

Reproduction is authorised provided the source is acknowledged.

Europe Direct is a service to help you find answers to your questions about the European Union

Freephone number (*):

00 800 6 7 8 9 10 11 (*) Certain mobile telephone operators do not allow access to 00 800 numbers, or these calls may be billed.

New risks and trends in the safety and health of women at work

European Agency for Safety and Health at Work EU-OSHA 3

Table of contents List of figures and tables: ........................................................................................................................ 6Abbreviations ........................................................................................................................................ 10Country codes ...................................................................................................................................... 13Executive summary .............................................................................................................................. 15

Method .............................................................................................................................................. 15What this report adds to the knowledge ........................................................................................... 17Differences between Member States ................................................................................................ 19Trends in female employment and how they impact on OSH .......................................................... 20Occupational segregation ................................................................................................................. 22Informal work .................................................................................................................................... 25Female migrant workers ................................................................................................................... 27Accidents at work .............................................................................................................................. 28Exposures, health problems and occupational diseases .................................................................. 30Combined exposures ........................................................................................................................ 40Disability and rehabilitation ............................................................................................................... 42Conclusions for policy, research and prevention .............................................................................. 44Gender mainstreaming and OSH examples of successful implementation ................................. 51

1 Introduction ................................................................................................................................ 551.1 Why look at women and OSH? ............................................................................................... 551.2 Women, work and risks ........................................................................................................... 551.3 Overview of women at work within the EU .............................................................................. 561.4 Women as workers .................................................................................................................. 581.5 Women and the research process ........................................................................................... 581.6 New risks and trends .............................................................................................................. 601.7 Women and non-traditional jobs .............................................................................................. 601.8 Limitations ................................................................................................................................ 611.9 Method ..................................................................................................................................... 61

2 Gender and employment in the EU ........................................................................................... 632.1 Introduction .............................................................................................................................. 632.2 Data sources ............................................................................................................................ 632.3 Statistical data related to gender and employment in the EU ................................................. 642.4 Employment rates .................................................................................................................... 662.5 Gender segregation by sector ................................................................................................. 832.6 Employment status .................................................................................................................. 972.7 Womens level of education ................................................................................................... 1162.8 Retirement ............................................................................................................................. 1182.9 Wages and wage structure .................................................................................................... 1192.10 Discussion ............................................................................................................................. 126

3 Assessing the relationship between gender, occupational status and working conditions ..... 133

New risks and trends in the safety and health of women at work

European Agency for Safety and Health at Work EU-OSHA 4

3.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................................ 1333.2 Job content ............................................................................................................................ 1333.3 Skill match ............................................................................................................................. 1363.4 Customer service and people work ...................................................................................... 1363.5 Work intensity ........................................................................................................................ 1373.6 Job autonomy and working-time autonomy ........................................................................... 1393.7 Exposure to material and physical hazards ........................................................................... 1423.8 Exposure to ergonomic hazards ............................................................................................ 1513.9 Work and computers .............................................................................................................. 1563.10 Discussion ............................................................................................................................. 158

4 Exposure to violence, intimidation and discrimination at the workplace ................................. 1654.1 Overview ................................................................................................................................ 1654.2 Violence, harassment and female workers............................................................................ 1664.3 Harassment ........................................................................................................................... 1714.4 Women in male-dominated professions ........