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    Mestrado Integrado em Engenharia Civil

    Mestrado em Engenharia do Territrio

    Disciplina: Engenharia de Trfego Rodovirio

    Prof. Responsvel: Filipe Moura

    Session 11: Pedestrians

    (Source: HCM 2000)

    Engenharia de Trfego Rodovirio / Road Traffic Engineering MEC (Urbanismo, Transportes e Sistemas), MET, MPOT, MUOT 1

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    Analysis of pedestrian flows and LOS

    The analysis of pedestrian flow generally is based on the mean walking speeds of groups of pedestrians.

    Within and among groups there can be considerable differences in flow characteristics due to trip purpose, type of group, age, and other factors.

    The LOS criteria for pedestrian flow are based on subjective measures, which can be imprecise.

    It is possible to define ranges of space per pedestrian, flow rates, and speeds, which then can be used to develop quality-of-flow criteria.

    Speed is an important LOS criterion because it can be observed and measured easily, and because it is a descriptor of the service pedestrians perceive.

    Engenharia de Trfego Rodovirio / Road Traffic Engineering MEC (Urbanismo, Transportes e Sistemas), MET, MPOT, MUOT 2

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    Concepts and definitions (I)

    Speed (average pedestrian walking speed) usually in m/s. Pedestrian flow rate - the number of pedestrians passing a point per unit of time,

    expressed as pedestrians per 15 min or pedestrians per minute Pedestrian flow per unit of width is expressed as pedestrians per minute per meter (p/min/

    m).

    Pedestrian density is expressed as pedestrians per square meter (p/m2). Pedestrian space is the average area provided for each pedestrian in a walkway or

    queuing area. It is the inverse of density, and is often a more practical unit for analyzing pedestrian facilities.

    Platoon refers to a number of pedestrians walking together in a group, usually involuntarily, as a result of signal control and other factors.

    Engenharia de Trfego Rodovirio / Road Traffic Engineering MEC (Urbanismo, Transportes e Sistemas), MET, MPOT, MUOT 3

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    Concepts and definitions (II)

    The qualitative measures of pedestrian flow are similar to those used for vehicular flow, e.g. freedom to choose desired speeds and to bypass others.

    Measures related specifically to pedestrian flow include: ability to cross a pedestrian traffic stream walk in the reverse direction to maneuver without conflicts and changes in walking speed, and the delay experienced by pedestrians at signalized and unsignalized intersections.

    Additional environmental factors that contribute to perceived LOS are Comfort, convenience, safety, security, and economy of the walkway system.

    Comfort Weather protection, climate control, transit shelters, and other pedestrian amenities.

    Convenience Walking distances, pathway directness, grades, sidewalk ramps, directional signing,

    directory maps, etc.

    Engenharia de Trfego Rodovirio / Road Traffic Engineering MEC (Urbanismo, Transportes e Sistemas), MET, MPOT, MUOT 4

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    Concepts and definitions (III)

    Safety Physical or time separation (traffic control devices) of pedestrians from vehicular traffic on

    the same horizontal plane

    Security Lighting, open lines of sight, and the degree and type of street activity

    Economic aspects are related to costs due to Delays and inconvenience Commercial values and retail development influenced by pedestrian accessibility

    These supplemental factors can affect pedestrian perceptions of the overall quality of the street environment, from which the pedestrian has virtually no control over them, and are not analyzed quantitatively.

    Engenharia de Trfego Rodovirio / Road Traffic Engineering MEC (Urbanismo, Transportes e Sistemas), MET, MPOT, MUOT 5

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    Level of Service in walkways (I)

    Engenharia de Trfego Rodovirio / Road Traffic Engineering MEC (Urbanismo, Transportes e Sistemas), MET, MPOT, MUOT 6

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    Level of Service (II)

    Engenharia de Trfego Rodovirio / Road Traffic Engineering MEC (Urbanismo, Transportes e Sistemas), MET, MPOT, MUOT 7

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    Level of Service in waiting areas or queues (I) In waiting areas, the pedestrian stands temporarily, waiting to be serve and LOS is related to the

    average space available to each pedestrian and the degree of mobility allowed. In queuing areas, LOS is based on average pedestrian space, personal comfort, and degrees of

    internal mobility LOS E ,at 0.2 to 0.3 m2/p, are encountered only in the most crowded elevators or transit vehicles. LOS D, at 0.3 to 0.6 m2/p, describes crowding, but with some internal maneuverability.

    Engenharia de Trfego Rodovirio / Road Traffic Engineering MEC (Urbanismo, Transportes e Sistemas), MET, MPOT, MUOT 8

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    Level of Service in waiting areas or queues (II)

    Engenharia de Trfego Rodovirio / Road Traffic Engineering MEC (Urbanismo, Transportes e Sistemas), MET, MPOT, MUOT 9

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    Relations between speed and density, flow and space, and flow and speed

    The conditions at maximum flow represent the capacity of the walkway facility.

    Maximum unit flow fall within a narrow range of density, ]0.4,0.9[ m2/p.

    Even the outer range of these observations indicates that maximum flow occurs at this density, although the actual flow in this study is considerably higher than in the others.

    As space is reduced to less than 0.4 m2/p, the flow rate declines precipitously.

    Note: all movement effectively stops at the minimum space allocation of 0.2 to 0.3 m2/p.

    Engenharia de Trfego Rodovirio / Road Traffic Engineering MEC (Urbanismo, Transportes e Sistemas), MET, MPOT, MUOT 10

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    Relations between speed and flow and between space and speed (I)

    where Vped = unit flow rate (p/min/m) Sped = pedestrian speed (m/min) Dped = pedestrian density (p/m2) M = pedestrian space (m2/p)

    !

    Vped = Sped "Dped

    !

    Vped =Sped

    M

    These relationships suggest that pedestrian traffic can be evaluated qualitatively by using LOS concepts similar to vehicular traffic analysis.

    Engenharia de Trfego Rodovirio / Road Traffic Engineering MEC (Urbanismo, Transportes e Sistemas), MET, MPOT, MUOT 11

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    Space occupied by pedestrians

    Engenharia de Trfego Rodovirio / Road Traffic Engineering MEC (Urbanismo, Transportes e Sistemas), MET, MPOT, MUOT 12

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    Space occupied by pedestrians

    Engenharia de Trfego Rodovirio / Road Traffic Engineering MEC (Urbanismo, Transportes e Sistemas), MET, MPOT, MUOT 13

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    Analysis period and input requirements

    The duration of an analysis period for pedestrians is typically 15 min. It is difficult to predict flow patterns like platoons based on a longer analysis period.

    A midblock walkway should be counted for several different 15-min time periods during the day to establish variations in directional flows.

    Engenharia de Trfego Rodovirio / Road Traffic Engineering MEC (Urbanismo, Transportes e Sistemas), MET, MPOT, MUOT 14

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    Default values

    Engenharia de Trfego Rodovirio / Road Traffic Engineering MEC (Urbanismo, Transportes e Sistemas), MET, MPOT, MUOT 15

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    Walking speed

    Average walking speed Depends on the proportion of elderly pedestrians (65 years walking speed of age

    and older) in the walking population . % of elderly pedestrians is between 0% to 20% , the value of of 1.2 m/s is recommended. % of elderly pedestrians is above 20% , the value of of 1.0 m/s is recommended

    An upgrade of 10 percent or greater reduces walking speed by 0.1 m/s.

    Engenharia de Trfego Rodovirio / Road Traffic Engineering MEC (Urbanismo, Transportes e Sistemas), MET, MPOT, MUOT 16

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    Effective Walkway Width (I)

    The concept of a pedestrian lane should not be used for pedestrian analysis, because studies have shown that pedestrians do not walk in organized lanes.

    Walkway is meaningful for determining how many persons can walk side by side To avoid interference when two pedestrians pass each other, each should have at least 0.8m

    of walkway width The Portuguese legislation (DL 163/2006) - states that width in each sidewalk should be at

    least 1.5 meters. Effective walkway is the portion of a walkway that can be used effectively for pedestrian

    movements Moving pedestrians shy away from the curb and do not press closely against building walls Similarly, stripes are preempted by pedestrians standing near a building, or near physical

    obstructions, such as light poles, mail boxes, and parking meters These unused spaces must be discounted when analyzing a pedestrian facility A single point of obstruction would not reduce the effective width of an entire walkway, it

    would have an effect on its immediate vicinity

    Engenharia

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