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  • COMUNICAR EM LNGUA INGLESA

  • 2

    INDEX

  • 3

    INDEX ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 2

    TENSES ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 4

    Present Simple --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------11

    Past Simple ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------12

    Present Continuous --------------------------------------------------------------------------------13

    Past Continuous ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------14

    Present Perfect --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------15

    Past Perfect ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------16

    Extra - Exercises ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------17

    REPORTED SPEECH ----------------------------------------------------------------------------19

    Rephrasing ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------22

    Passive voice ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------25

    IF CLAUSES ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------27

    FORMATION OF COMPARATIVES AND SUPERLATIVES ---------------------------30

    ADJECTIVES------------------------------------------------------------------------------------30

    ADVERBS ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------31

    Making comparisons -------------------------------------------------------------------------------31

    Vocabulary ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------33

    WORD FORMATION ----------------------------------------------------------------------------35

    BIBLIOGRAPHY ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------36

  • 4

    TENSES

    SIMPLE I study1

    CONTINUOUS I am studying

    PRESENT

    PERFECT I have studied

    PERFECT CONTINUOUS I have been studying

    Usa-se o PRESENT SIMPLE e no o Present Continuous, com os verbos:

    Verbs of thinking Verbs of feeling Verbs of perception Verbs of possession Reporting verbs Other verbs

    Think

    Believe

    Agree

    Understand

    Know

    Remember

    Forget

    Want

    Wish

    Like

    Love

    Hate

    See

    Hear

    Notice

    Have

    Own

    Belong

    Say

    Ask

    Tell

    Answer

    Cost

    Weigh

    Seem

    Appear

    Need

    Aco habitual ou repetida. Ex.: I go to school on foot.

    Situaes imutveis ou permanents. Ex.: The sun moves round the earth.

    Planos futuros relativos a viagens, espectculos e horrios. Ex.: When does the show begin? / The train starts at 12.30.

    Em ligao com certas expresses de tempo: Frequently

    Generally

    Usually

    Rarely

    Always

    Often

    Sometimes

    Everyday

    Once a week

    Several times

    Aces que acontecem no momento em que se fala. Ex.: The telephone is ringing.

    Situaes temporrias de mudana. Ex.: I am working in a factory for the time being. / It is getting colder.

    Projectos pessoais num futuro prximo. Ex.: She is arriving in Lisbon next Saturday.

    Em ligao com certas expresses de tempo: Now

    At present

    At this moment

    Aco que decorre num tempo indefinido. Ex.: Ive seen her.

    Aco que comea no passado e continua at ao presente. Ex.: Ive worked in England for three years.

    Aco que acontece num passado muito recente. Ex.: Ive seen her this morning.

    Usa-se com JUST. Ex.: Ive just written the letter.

    Usa-se com os seguintes advrbios e expresses adverbiais:

    Com AS SOON AS, UNTIL, WHEN, quando equivalents a after. Ex.: Come and see me when (=after) you have had your dinner

    Recently

    Lately

    Up to now

    Its the first time

    This morning

    Ever

    Never

    Already

    Yet (interrogative and negative)

    CO

    MP

    AR

    AR

    CO

    M P

    AS

    T S

    IMP

    LE

    V

    er Q

    UA

    DR

    O

    Ver

    QU

    AD

    RO

  • 5

    (cont. Present Perfect Continuous)

    PERFECT CONTINUOUS I have been studying

    TENSES

    SIMPLE I studied

    PAST CONTINUOUS I was studying

    PERFECT I had studied

    PERFECT CONTINUOUS I had been studying

    Aco que decorre num momento bem definido do passado Ex.: I saw her yesterday

    Aco completamente passada sem nenhuma relao com o

    presente. Ex.: I worked in England four years ago.

    Usa-se com as seguintes expresses adverbiais:

    Yesterday

    The day before yesterday

    Last saturday

    Last week

    A few minutes ago

    Long ago

    Equivalente ao Present Continuous.

    Usa-se para exprimir aces simultneas no passado. Ex.: I was having dinner when the telephone rang.

    No se usa com verbos como know, want, etc.

    Aco anterior ao passado. Ex.: When I arrived, the train had started.

    CO

    MP

    AR

    AR

    CO

    M P

    RE

    SE

    NT

    PE

    RF

    EC

    T

    Equivale ao Past Perfect; usa-se no mesmo sentido.

    Exprime reforo de durao e continuidade.

    Usa-se com certos verbos que exprimem uma aco que

    dura e se prolonga no tempo: Ex: expect, learn, lie, etc. (ver Present Perfect Continuous)

    Equivale ao Present Perfect; usa-se no mesmo sentido e nas

    mesmas condies.

    Exprime, alm disso, reforo de continuidade e durao.

    Usa-se com advrbios precedidos de ALL. Ex.: All morning, all day.

    Usa-se (de preferncia ao Present Perfect) com verbos que

    exprimem uma aco que dura e se prolonga no tempo:

    Em vez de dizeres I have learned podes dizer I have been learning.

    Expect

    Live

    Stand

    Rest

    Learn

    Sit

    Stay

    Lie

    Sleep

    Study

    Work

  • 6

    Present Simple

    1) Affirmative:

    Ex: He runs (Ele corre) ; She sees (Ela v) ; It (the dog) eats (Ele, o co, come)

    Paul runs (o Paulo corre) ; Alice sees (a Alice v) ; the pen writes (a caneta escreve)

    Ex: He watches (Ele olha) ; She misses (Ela sente falta de) ; It (the dog) goes (Ele, o co, vai)

    Ex: to worry (preocupar, preocupar-se) He worries (Ele preocupa-se)

    Mas: to play (jogar, brincar, tocar) He plays (Ele joga)

    2) Negative:

    Ex: Affirmative: She likes the book. Negative: She doesnt like the book.

    3) Interrogative:

    3 pessoa do singular acrescenta um s

    Verbos terminados em: sh ch x ss o ; acrescentam es na 3 pessoa do singular

    Verbos terminados em: -y precedido de consoante, o y passa a -i e acrescentam es na 3 pessoa do singular

    Usa-se sempre um auxiliar: do excepo do verbo to be

    Na 3 pessoa do singular, como se acrescenta s, usa-se does e o verbo principal NO leva s, ou seja, fica no bare infinitive

    Sujeito + aux + not + verbo

    I do not work = I dont work

    He does not work = He doesnt work

    to work (trabalhar) to be (ser, estar)

    I do not work = I dont work I am not You do not work = you dont work You are not = you arent He does not work = he doesnt work He is not = he isnt She does not work = she doesnt work She is not = she isnt It does not work = it doesnt work It is not = it isnt We do not work = we dont work We are not = we arent You do not work = you dont work You are not = you arent They do not work = they dont work They are not = they arent

    Usa-se sempre um auxiliar: do excepo do verbo to be

    Na 3 pessoa do singular, como se acrescenta s, usa-se does e o verbo principal NO leva s, ou seja, fica no bare infinitive

    H inverso de sujeito

    Aux + sujeito + verbo

    do I work ?

    does he work ?

    to work (trabalhar) to be (ser, estar)

    do I work ? am I ?

    do you work ? are you ?

    does he work ? is he ?

    does she work ? is she ?

    does it work ? is it ?

    do we work ? are we ?

    do you work ? are you ?

    do they work ? are they ?

  • 7

    Past Simple

    1) Affirmative:

    Ex: to work he worked (trabalhar ele trabalhou) ; to like - he liked (gostar ele gostou)

    Ex: He ran (Ele correu) ; She saw (Ela viu) ; It (the dog) ate (Ele, o co, comeu)

    Ex: to stop (parar) he stopped (ele parou) ; to travel (viajar) he travelled (ele viajou)

    Ex: to worry (preocupar, preocupar-se) He worried (Ele preocupou-se)

    Mas: to play (jogar, brincar, tocar) He played (Ele jogou)

    2) Negative:

    Ex: to go, went, gone Affirmative: He went home. Negative: He didnt go home.

    3) Interrogative:

    Os verbos regulares formam-se acrescentando ed ; os que j terminam em e, apenas acrescentam -d

    3 pessoa do singular NO acrescenta um s

    Verbos terminados em consoante, precedidos de vogal nica, dobram a consoante ao juntar ed

    Usa-se sempre um auxiliar: did excepo do verbo to be

    Como o auxiliar j est no passado, o verbo principal fica no infinitivo sem to

    Sujeito + aux + not + verbo

    I did not work = I didnt work

    He